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A Nod In the direction of Capitalism in Venezuela — International Points


A partial view of the town of Punto Fijo, with the Cardón refinery within the background, on the Paraguaná peninsula, projected as a particular financial zone overlooking the Caribbean in northwest Venezuela. CREDIT: Megaconstrucciones
  • by Humberto Marquez (caracas)
  • Inter Press Service

The goal of the SEZs is “to offer particular situations to achieve the financial confidence of traders from everywhere in the world, and productive growth to place an finish as soon as and for all to grease rentism,” stated President Nicolás Maduro when he promulgated the Natural Legislation of Particular Financial Zones on Jul. 20.

The SEZs, “90 p.c of that are within the world creating South, are a catalyst for financial restructuring processes and go hand in hand with the growth of the neoliberal financial system,” sociologist Emiliano Terán, a researcher with the non-governmental Venezuelan Observatory of Political Ecology, informed IPS.

In line with the United Nations Convention on Commerce and Improvement (Unctad), there have been 5,383 SEZs on this planet in 2019 and one other 508 below development, of which 4,772 had been in creating nations – 2,543 in China alone and 737 in Southeast Asia.

In Latin America and the Caribbean there have been 486 – 73 within the Dominican Republic, some 150 in Central America, seven in Mexico and 39 in Colombia.

SEZs are primarily business, reminiscent of free ports or free commerce zones, the place import quotas, tariffs, customs or gross sales taxes are eradicated; industrial, with an emphasis on enhancing infrastructure accessible to corporations; city or mining ventures; or export processing.

Their major attribute is that, so as to stimulate funding, particularly international funding, there are extra versatile rules on taxes, funding necessities, employment, paperwork and procedures, entry to assets and inputs, export quotas and capital repatriation.

A watch on the surroundings

In Venezuela, the primary 5 zones decreed are the arid Paraguaná Peninsula, within the northwest; Margarita Island, within the southeastern Caribbean; La Guaira and Puerto Cabello, that are the biggest ports, alongside the central portion of the Caribbean coast; and the distant La Tortuga Island, some 200 kilometers northeast of Caracas.

Paraguaná (an space of three,400 sq. kilometers) is dwelling to a big oil refining complicated, and Margarita Island (1,020 sq. kilometers) has for many years been a gross sales tax-free zone and a vacationer mecca for Venezuela’s center class.

Puerto Cabello and La Guaira are primarily ports for imports to the populated north-central a part of the nation, whose major exports, oil and metals, are shipped from docks within the manufacturing areas within the east and west.

Resort complexes, airports, marinas and golf programs are being deliberate for La Tortuga, which covers 156 sq. kilometers and has no everlasting inhabitants. Environmental teams warn that its waters, reefs and the island itself are dwelling to 5 species of turtles, 73 species of birds and dozens of species of fish and cetaceans.

Restricted financial system

“The environmental problem is a priority, however it’s arduous to imagine that the federal government has the assets or the traders for the variety of accommodations deliberate for La Tortuga,” economist Luis Oliveros, a professor on the Metropolitan and Central Universities of Venezuela, informed IPS.

The decreed Venezuelan SEZs “appear extra like bulletins than realities, and though we like the federal government to consider development and growth hand in hand with personal funding, far more is required. It has but to be clarified what precisely the federal government is pursuing with these zones,” Oliveros stated.

In Venezuela “creating SEZs has limitations, such because the sanctions (imposed by the USA and the European Union) and the necessity to generate macroeconomic stability and authorized certainty, that are pending points,” he added.

After seven years of sharp decline – and three years of hyperinflation – Venezuela’s annual gross home product, which exceeded 300 billion {dollars} a decade in the past, now stands between 50 and 60 billion {dollars}, in keeping with economists.

Oil manufacturing, the principle lever of the financial system and supply of tax revenues, has shrunk and is starved of latest investments, whereas the State desperately seeks earnings by exporting crude oil at a reduction or promoting gold that’s extracted at the price of nice environmental harm within the southeast of the nation.

Attracting funding could also be an uphill wrestle for SEZs which have nonetheless not been absolutely mapped out, contemplating that, for instance, main corporations haven’t knocked on the door to lift oil manufacturing – 600,000 barrels per day when a decade in the past it was three million – regardless of the favorable indicators despatched by the USA.

Since March, casual contacts between Washington and Caracas, prompted by the influence of the struggle in Ukraine on the world vitality market, have explored, with out success thus far, easing sanctions and different measures to carry Venezuela again to the U.S. oil market with new investments.

Neoliberal plan

Within the southeast of the nation, an space wealthy in gold, iron, diamonds, coltan and different minerals, the 112,000 sq. kilometer Orinoco Mining Arc (bigger than Bulgaria, Cuba or Portugal) was decreed in 2016 as a “strategic growth zone”, and its management and administration was handed over to the armed forces.

The Mining Arc “has been a precedent for a brand new mannequin promoted by the State to draw investments, however with depredation of the surroundings and restriction of wages and staff’ rights,” warned Luis Crespo, professor of Economics on the Central College of Venezuela, throughout a discussion board at that college.

“The particular financial zones are a part of a silent neoliberal adjustment plan pushed ahead by the federal government of President Maduro,” stated Crespo.

The Venezuelan SEZ regulation – enacted by the legislature, which has been boycotted by a lot of the political opposition – states that its function is to develop a brand new manufacturing mannequin, promote home and international financial exercise, and diversify and enhance exports.

It additionally goals to advertise innovation, trade and expertise switch, create jobs and “make sure the environmental sustainability of manufacturing processes.”

The terminology about socialism or transition to socialism, frequent within the political discourse of the federal government and the ruling United Socialist Celebration, is absent from the laws of the SEZs and from the repeated calls for personal capital.

“The instance of China is being adopted, as it’s by different nations, in utilizing the SEZs as a showcase for heterodox types of capital accumulation, in a technique of progressive neoliberalization of the financial system, because the oil mannequin of manufacturing and distribution of wealth is being exhausted,” Terán stated.

He added that “the SEZs can’t be seen solely by way of macroeconomic indicators,” as they turn out to be “zones of social and environmental sacrifice, with a brand new political geography of dispossession, and with the cheapening of labor, particularly that of ladies staff.”

In line with UNCTAD, though there are variations in SEZs from one nation to a different and inside nations, their widespread options embrace having a clearly outlined geographic space, a regulatory regime that’s distinct from the remainder of the financial system, and particular infrastructure help for the event of their actions.

Extra politics

Venezuela’s SEZs will probably be guided by a council to be freely appointed by the president, every can have a single authority to be named by the president, and the decree establishing one of many zones should be thought of by the legislature inside 10 working days or it will likely be permitted, with out dialogue.

Areas such because the SEZs, the Mining Arc or particular navy zones in follow modify the political-administrative division of the nation, which solely in idea is a federal republic with 23 states plus a capital district.

In one other political transfer, on Aug. 23 Maduro publicly proposed to his new Colombian counterpart, leftwing President Gustavo Petro, who took workplace on Aug. 7, the creation of a particular binational financial zone between southwestern Venezuela and northeastern Colombia.

“We’re going to suggest to President Petro the development of a big financial, business and productive zone between the division of Norte de Santander (Colombia) and the state of Táchira (Venezuela),” Maduro stated.

Diplomatic, political, business and transit relations between the neighboring nations have been severed since February 2019.

In Táchira, enterprise spokespersons have expressed their help for this Andean state of 11,000 sq. kilometers to acquire particular regimes that favor commerce with the neighboring nation, and their friends in Colombia are betting on a restoration of bilateral commerce, which prospered till the primary decade of this century.

Terán described the projected creation of the SEZs as a potential “new pact of elites in Venezuela,” after greater than 20 years of acute political confrontation, however warned that “there’s another, as a result of though fragmented, dispersed and with a brand new look, protests towards these pacts have by no means ceased.”

© Inter Press Service (2022) — All Rights ReservedAuthentic supply: Inter Press Service

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